The Wines of the Puglia Region
The cultivation of the vine in Puglia dates back to the Phoenician era, but it was the Romans who were the first to appreciate Apulian wines, so much so that the poet Horace compared them to Falerno, then considered the best among the wines in circulation. In the following centuries other testimonies mark the historical evolution of the Apulian wines until the bitter enemy of the vine, the phylloxera, determined the almost total extermination of the vineyards. However, the productive and economic disaster was not completely negative; the opportunity was in fact propitious for quality changes to the production system, that is to reconstruct the vineyards, in part, following the old logics for the production of cut wines and, in part, aiming for quality with the introduction of Negroamaro vines and Primitivo. The success was so great and widespread that even today these vines represent Apulian oenology in the world.
Climate, Territory and Cultivation systems of the vine
The Apulian territory extends for about 350 km. between hills and plains, bathed by the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The atmospheric conditions are characterized by the Mediterranean climate with not very cold and little rainy winters and hot and windy summers that favor the ripening process of the grapes, healthy and dry, which are ideal for the production of structured wines with a good intensity of color.
The Calcareous-Clay Soils present in the northern part of Puglia, at the foot of the Gargano and in the Tavoliere, and the Calcareous-Sandy soils further south, along the sea coast, give the wines character, fragrance and fragrance, especially white wines, rosés and young reds, obtained from Montepulciano vines, Uva di Troia and Sangiovese. In the Murge plateau, which extends to the Serre Salentine, the soil is made up of Calcareous-Clayey and Siliceous-Clayey soils that give good elegance to white and rosé wines, and an excellent body with mineral components to the longest-lasting red wines . On the sea coast and on the reduced Murge coasts, the Tufaceous and Sandy Lands are ideal for the production of real Moscato, while the typical Terre Rosse Salentine, composed of Calcareous-Clay Soils, represent the ideal environment for the cultivation of the Negroamaro grape and of the more versatile Primitivo variety, which in this type of land for more structured wines, in alluvial soils more pulpy wines, in tufaceous soils cooler wines and in sandy soils less full-bodied but finer wines.
The most common systems of vine growing in Puglia are the Alberello, the Tendone and other espalier forms.