Wines of the Sardinia Region
The cultivation of vines in Sardinia dates back to the time of the Phoenicians, but evidence of Greek, Roman and Carthaginian presences left traces in the following centuries. At the end of the 14th century, with the importation of the Vernaccia grape variety, wine-growing Sardinia began to have an important turning point, also thanks to the Vermentino grape variety introduced a little later. Then, in the following century, it was the turn of the Cannonau, introduced by the Spaniards (which takes their name from Alicante), and, subsequently, the Bovale, Monica and Nasco vines. The annexation of Sardinia to Piedmont gave new vigor and fame to Sardinian oenology, above all thanks to the extension of the other Nuragus vines of Cagliari, Malvasia and Torbato to the wine-growing areas, which contributed significantly to the export of Sardinian wines to Piedmont, Austria and France.
In more recent times, new oenological technologies developed by Sardinian winemakers have allowed the renewal of the wine sector, qualitatively improving production with elegant and structured red wines and fresh and savory white wines such as Vermentino di Gallura, highly appreciated on international tables.
Climate, Territory and Cultivation systems of the vine
Sardinia is a land surrounded by the sea whose coast covers an area of approximately 1,800 km. The internal area is made up of two / thirds of hilly territory and the remaining part equally divided between mountain and plain.
The weather conditions are characterized by the Mediterranean climate with mild and slightly rainy winters and hot and breezy summers. The innermost areas, that is the valleys and the highlands, are affected by the temperate climate which determines strong daily and seasonal temperature variations, to the advantage of the grapes which confer structural power, color and aromas to the wines during the vinification phases.
The Sardinian soil derives from the erosion of ancient rocks from whose sedimentation rock soils of granite, shale, trachyte and basalt were formed. These conditions, although optimal for water drainage, are sometimes not very fertile because the vine is forced to develop in shallow soils.
The most common vine growing systems in Sardinia are the traditional Alberello and the espalier forms with Guyot and spurred cordon pruning.