Wines from the Trentino Alto Adige region
The wine tradition of Trentino Alto Adige has ancient origins and is believed to have been introduced by the Illyrians, an Indo-European population, and then continued by the Romans who, in the Rezia area, in South Tyrol, increased the cultivation and production of wine thanks to the technique of wooden "wine vessels" (barrels).
In the Middle Ages, the cultivation of vines also caught the interest of large ecclesiastical organizations, so much so that in the eighth century, bishops and monasteries of Bavaria and Swabia purchased vast expanses of vineyards in the region to grow and produce wines intended for their needs . Over time, Trentino wines appreciated and spread almost everywhere in Europe and some of them distinguished themselves commendably, such as the aromatic Traminer, mentioned in the "Book of Nature" written in 1349 by Konrad of Menghenberg, or the Marzemino, mentioned in the Don Giovanni by Mozart.
In the second half of the 1800s, the vineyards of Trentino Alto Adige were scourged by Oidium, Downy mildew and, later, by Phylloxera, but it was in Bolzano that the action of sulfur against powdery mildew was discovered. In the same period, in 1874, the first experimental oenology station in the region was founded in San Michele, destined to become a pilot experience, which today boasts of being among the most qualified universities in Europe.
The Trentino wine-growing area is characterized by the cultivation of the autochthonous Schiava grape, a term that derives from the Latin Vernacius (slave born at home), and therefore a local product, from which Vernaccia also derives. In the Piana di Gries (Bolzano) Lagrein is grown, the oldest grape variety in northern Italy, while Chardonnay is the widespread white grape variety used for the production of sparkling wines, which constitute one of the flagships of the Trentino and South Tyrolean enology.
Climate, Territory and Cultivation systems of the vine
The Trentino territory is mainly mountainous and hilly which diversifies the climate in relation to the orographic characteristics of the place. The Mediterranean climate in the area of Lake Garda is ideal for the cultivation of the Chardonnay and Merlot vines, while on the glaciers of the Adamello and the Orties-Cevedale group there is a typically Alpine climate.
The alternation of mountain reliefs with the Trentino valley bottom changes the climatic situation from very cold conditions to a temperate climate found in the Venetian Prealps, in Vallagarina and in the Adige Valley in which Calcareous soils persist. Pebbly-Pebbly soils are, on the other hand, typical of the Piana Rotaliana, whose combination with the Sub-continental Climate give the Teroldego Wine structure and longevity.
The influences of the Peler and Ora winds make the temperatures of the Valle dei Laghi milder, allowing the Nosiola grapes to dry perfectly in the racks and make an excellent Holy Wine. In the Cembra Valley, the cultivation of the vine is particularly ideal thanks to the good drainage of the land and the Alpine climate which generates strong temperature variations between day and night, to the advantage of the ripening of the grapes, enriched by the aromatic and acidic components that pleasantly found in various wines including Müller-Thurgau.
The main vine growing systems spread in Trentino Alto Adige are: the Pergola Trentina, simple in the slopes and double in the valley bottom; and vertical espalier, which allows a better processing of the vineyard.