Wines of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region
The Friuli Venezia Giulia region is located at the north-eastern end of Italy, on the border with Slovenia and Austria. Overlooking the Adriatic Sea, it is framed by high mountains in which many landscapes surrounded by green nature are located. One of the most curious features concerns the Karst plateau, in whose rocky walls there are caves of various sizes dug over time by strong gusts of wind, typical of that environment. Very suggestive are the high mountain panoramas, especially those of the slopes of the Eastern Dolomites, of Carnia and of the Julian Alps, which also include lakes, valleys and protected areas. In the stretch from Monfalcone to Trieste the coast is rocky, while from the border with the Veneto region to Monfalcone, the coast is rich in lagoons and has long sandy beaches where various tourist spots arise including the renowned Lignano Sabbiadoro.
From an oenological point of view, Friuli-Venezia Giulia is a region dedicated to the highest quality wine-growing, which began to develop in the most modern aspects starting from the middle of the last century, especially with regard to the production of white wines, which achieve results excellent thanks to the characteristics of the soil, the strong temperature range between day and night, and the influence of the Adriatic Sea.
Climate, Territory and Cultivation systems of the vine
In the mountain area, which includes the area of the Carnic and Julian Alps, the climate is decidedly harsh and rainy which makes the cultivation of vineyards difficult. The hilly area, stretched along the Italian-Slovenian border, is more favored by the conditions of a temperate climate, which makes the vineyard soils, called "Flish of Cormòns" and in local jargon "Ponca", made up of friable and marly rocks debris from the sea, rich in silt, clays and sand. The combination of climatic, orographic and marine characteristics are optimal conditions that favor the ripening of the grapes, especially white berried grapes, from which elegant and fragrant wines with good structure and minerality are obtained.
The high plain, which includes the Grave del Friuli area, is made up of gravelly soils and debris from glaciers, while the low plain, which benefits from a mild climate, is made up of sandy-clayey soils rich in minerals, ideal for the cultivation of black berried grapes. The Soča plain is made up of iron-rich pebbly soils, which allow large production of white berried grapes. The rocky part of the coastal area, or the "Karst land", is made up of calcareous soils and is characterized by a sub-Mediterranean climate which is at the origin of angular gusts of wind from the Bora; however, despite considerable cultivation difficulties, strong vines such as Vitovka and Terrano manage to produce excellent grapes from which Wines of good structure and great intensity of floral and fruity aromas are obtained.
The most commonly used vine growing systems in Friuli Venezia Giulia are espalier, such as Syloz, Guyot, Cappuccina and Casarsa, the latter most common in the Grave.